HUMANITAS ἐγκύκλιος παιδεία PAIDEIA
“ONLY THE EDUCATED ARE FREE”
DEFINITIONS OF HUMANITAS (Greek Concept: paideia)
I. human nature, humanity;
the quality and inclination of humankind.
II. mental cultivation befitting
a human being, liberal education;
refinedmanners, eloquence of language
Studia humanitatis, first defined by CICERO , consist of the “studies of humanity” — or those studies which are most appropriate and befitting a free man or human being.
These studies, however, were not limited to Rome, for Cicero openly acknowledged the philosophical inheritance of the studia humanitatisdescending from the ancient Greek concept of enkuklios paideia, whichis the “encircling or well-rounded education”
Today we know these studies are not limited to man alone or only to the rich but to man and woman alike and rich and poor.
According to Cicero, in his speech Pro Archia, where the Roman oratorargued in defense of the claim and right to Roman citizenship of hismentor and friend, the Greek poet-scholar Archias, these “studies of humanity” have a kind of common bond or kinship, and therebyconstitute a true liberal education the kind all free citzens should beexposed to.
In other words, it is a humane or liberal education which sets the mind and soul free. (L. liberos, Gr. eleutherios).
LEARNING IS FOOD FOR THE MIND (Cicero)
But then, O my friends, he said, if the soul is really immortal, what care should be taken of her, not only in respect of the portion of time whichis called life, but of eternity!
And the danger of neglecting her from this point of view does indeedappear to be awful. If death had only been the end of all, the wicked would have had a good bargain in dying, for they would have been happily quit not only of their body, but of their own evil together with their souls.
But now, as the soul plainly appears to be immortal, there is no releaseor salvation from evil except the attainment of the highest virtue and wisdom.
For the soul when on her progress to the world below takes nothing with her but nurture and education; which are indeed said greatly tobenefit or greatly to injure the departed, at the very beginning of its pilgrimage in the other world.”
Socrates in Plato’s Phaedo, 107 in Jowett’s translation. “
The soul of man is immortal and imperishable.”
Plato, The Republic,, Book X, 608-D